The "J-1" or "exchange visitor" visa is availableto foreign nationals to enter the United States as exchange visitors to participate in government approved exchange programs. First, the prospective employer must establish an approved exchange program. Such program may be sponsored by government agencies, private businesses or educational agencies. The foreign national may then enter the United States for the purpose of doing research, gaining training or studying. Depending on the foreign national's qualifications and the type of exchange program, the J-1 visa is available anywhere from 18 months for most trainees to 42 months for professors and research scholars. Certain foreign nationals may be subject to a two-year home residency requirement at the end
of their stay.